Hi Guest!
Contribute to this record

Thomas Huxley

** community contributed record **

Name, Aliases & Gender

Name: Thomas Huxley
Aliases: Thomas Jones, Thomas Huckles
Gender: m

Birth, Occupation & Death

Date of Birth: 31st July, 1768
Occupation: Farmer & ploughman
Date of Death: 4th July, 1854
Age: 85 years

Life Span

Life span

Male median life span was 54 years*

* Median life span based on contributions

Conviction & Transportation

Sentence Severity

Sentence Severity

Sentenced to 7 years

Crime: Stealing
Convicted at: Old Bailey
Sentence term: 7 years
Ship: Active, Albermarle, Atlantic, Barrington, Britannia, Mary Ann, Matilda, Salamander and William and Ann
Departure date: January, 1791
Arrival date: 9th July, 1791
Place of arrival New South Wales
Passenger manifest Travelled with 1021 other convicts


Did you find the person you were looking for?

If Thomas Huxley was the person you were looking for, you may be able to discover more about them by looking at our resources page.

If you have more hunting to do, try a new search or browse the convict records.

Know more about Thomas Huxley?

Contribute to this record

Community Contributions

Leigh Ryan on 3rd June, 2014 wrote:

Thomas Huxley, convict
Place of Burial:  St Peters Church of England Graveyard, Richmond, NSW, Australia
Birth:  July 31, 1768
London, Middlesex, England
Death:  July 4, 1854 (85)
Richmond, NSW, Australia
Immediate Family: 

Son of Uriah HUXLEY and Mary HUXLEY
Husband of Ann FORBES, convict
Father of Jane Forbes Huxley ARNDELL; Charlotte Ellem; Thomas James Huxley; Ann Wall; James HUXLEY; Samuel HUXLEY; John Richard HUXLEY; Esther Huxley; Sophia HUXLEY; Sarah “Ann” Huxley; Ann Huxley and A A Huxley

There is an old story that has been in the family for as long as anyone can remember….this story cant be validated so its authenticity is questionable but still worth telling i think….It was said that some years after being freed Thomas Huxley owned a parcel of land in Botany Bay…The local Aboriginal people had a hard time pronouncing his surname Huxley .... It sounded like ‘ugly’....And since that time , Thomas Huxleys parcel of land is known as Tom Ugly’s Point…..Google map it!!


Birth and DeathThomas Huxley (AKA Huckles, Huxley, Uxley, Oxley, Jones):

He was born in 1769 in Middlesex, London to parents Uriah and Mary Huckles or Huxley. He died on 4 July1854 and is buried at St Peters Church of England, Richmond. The headstone of Thomas’ grave was restored in 1973 and stands today as a memorial to a Hawkesbury pioneer.

Trial, Conviction, Transportation, Arrival,

On the 25th February 1789 (Reference: Old Bailey Proceedings Number 17890225) as part of the Gaol Delivery for the County of Middlesex, held at Justice Hall in the Old Bailey case number 217, Thomas Huckles AKA Thomas Jones was indicted for stealing a live pig valued at 9/- from the property of Thomas Ireland on the 6th of February 1789. Thomas had helped the owner to drive two pigs then drove one away later selling it to a Mr. Bowtell at Islington for 12/6. Thomas, in his own defence, stated that Mr. Ireland had employed him to drive the two pigs to Hyde Park Corner where he lost one as it was dark. He took the other pig home to his lodging but the landlady would not let it stay and he sold it to Mr. Bowtell with the intention of seeing Mr. Ireland the next market day to pay him the money.

Thomas was found guilty and sentenced to transportation for seven years. He departed at Plymouth, England on 27 March 1791 on the “Salamander” as part of the Third Fleet arriving at Port Jackson 21 August 1791 after 147 days at sea. 160 male prisoners embarked with five dying en route. Upon arrival Thomas was directly sent by the same ship to Norfolk Island where he may have become acquainted with Ann Forbes. The Dring family returned on the “Daedelus” in late 1794, while Thomas did not to return until 28 May 1796, some eighteen months later on the “Marquis Cornwallis”. Around this time the association between Ann and Dring ends, for a little later, Jane, is born to Ann Forbes and Thomas Jones but with the birth recorded in the New South Wales Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages as Jane Dring. It is now known that Jones was a recognised alias of Thomas Huckles as referenced in records both in the Lands Titles Office and the Musters of 1806, 1814 - 1820 and 1825.

Partner and Children: Thomas formed a de facto relationship with Ann Forbes around 1798. Thomas and Ann had ten children: six sons and four daughters.

Occupation and Land Grants: F armer of Windsor and Richmond , New South Wales.

On 4 January 1798 Thomas was granted 30 acres at Mulgrave Place, Hawkesbury , New South Wales with 70 more acres granted by Governor King on 4 June 1804 at Paradise Point, Mulgrave Place, New South Wales. In 1810 he acquired 90 acres of land on Paradise Point from James Bull and in 1813 an additional 90 acres was acquired in the Botany Bay area.In 1820 Thomas, at the age of 51, deeded a gift of 35 Acres of the Paradise Point land to son Thomas. By 1822 Thomas Senior was well established in farming and had started a wheat grinding mill providing a milling service to local farmers and transporting flour between the river and Sydney by his own trading vessel. He was also known to employ convicts and ex-convicts.

In Thomas’s son James’ obituary, published in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette on 18 August 1894, reference is made to the origin of the naming of Tom Ugly’s Point. It is stated therein that the strip of land belonged to Thomas Huxley and that local Aborigines pronounced ‘Huxley’ as ‘Ugly”. “Tom Ugly’s” is still the name that is applied to this place e.g. Tom Ugly’s Bridge. Years after his arrival when Thomas Huxley put his name to a land transaction it was learnt that for an unknown number of years and reasons, he had used the alias of Thomas Jones. It is established that Thomas Jones and Thomas Huxley were the same person when an original mortgage document (found by a family descendant) for Jones Farm at Paradise Point on which Thomas signs himself as “Thomas Huxley Otherwise Thomas Jones”.

In the 1828 Census Ann and Thomas Huxley, cite themselves both to be 55 years old, and that Thomas is a farmer with 100 acres, 40 cleared, at Lower Portland. Another reference shows Huxley at some time owned “Peacocks Farm”, which he subsequently sold to John Smith when he left the river to “seek fresh fields and pastures new”. Peacocks Farm then became a store and Pub and later a parsonage.

Other Interesting DetailsA verified reference indicates that there was a Thomas Huxley who was a cabin boy for Captain James Cook on one of his voyages. Thomas would have been the right age if born 1769.

In the 1806 muster Thomas Jones is listed as Freed by Servitude with Ann Forbes listed as housekeeper with five children.

Planning is well underway for the 2010 Windsor Bicentenary Celebrations. 140 trees have been planted in the Hawkesbury region in preparation for the celebrations; one each for the early convicts including Thomas and Ann.

Denis Pember on 24th May, 2015 wrote:

## Please Note the following.


On the 9th December 1789, THOMAS JONES (THOMAS HUXLEY) was indicted for stealing, on the 7th of November 1789, forty-two steel files, value 3/-.  These the property of William Knight an ironmonger.

Tried by the London Jury before Mr. RECORDER.
Guilty: Transported for 7 years.
The ship ‘Salamander’ arrived in the colony 21 August 1791


On the 25th February 1789, THOMAS HUCKLES was indicted for stealing, on the 6th February 1789, a pig value 9/-.  This pig, the property of Thomas Ireland.

Tried by the 2nd Middlesex Jury before Mr ROSE.
Guilty: Transported for 7 years. ????

If Thomas Huckles was in gaol, (From February) awaiting transportation I find it difficult to believe he was able to commit the crime (In December) for which Thomas Huxley (Jones) was convicted.
I believe that these are in fact two different people and that Thomas Huckles and Thomas Huxley are not one and the same. 

There is no evidence I have been able to locate which indicates an escape or indeed a remittance of sentence.

Please adjudicate your evidence.

Phil Hands on 12th March, 2017 wrote:

Transported Convict.
Tried and convicted at the Old Bailey on 9th December 1789 for stealing, on the 7th of November last, 42 steel files, value 3 s. the property of William Knight, sentenced to 7 years transportation.
Left Plymouth on 27th March 1791.
Ship:- the ‘Salamander’ sailed with 160 male convicts on board of which 5 died during the voyage.
Arrived on 21st August 1791.

Old Bailey Transcript
Reference Number: t17891209-98

99. THOMAS JONES was indicted for stealing, on the 7th of November last, forty-two steel files, value 3 s. the property of William Knight .
I am an iron-monger , I lost forty-two steel files; I was not at home.
I am porter to Mr. Knight, on the 7th of November, Saturday, the prisoner came into the shop and asked for a halfpennyworth of nails, then he wanted a gridiron; I left him in the shop; when I brought the gridirons down, he said they were not the size he wanted; I told him I would go up stairs, he went with me; as I was reaching one down, I thought I heard the rattling of paper, and I had a suspicion, he put something in his pocket: I said nothing to the prisoner; he came down stairs with me; I told Richard Knight my suspicion; he then came to the counter; I desired him to wait till my master came into the shop; and when he came in I examined him, and found forty-two files upon him; the files were in the boxes on the side of the counter; I did not go up to see if any were missing: he said, he had nothing but his own; he said these files were his own; the constable had the files.
I produce three dozen and a half of files; I took charge of the prisoner to the counter; then young Mr. Knight gave me these files; sealed them with my seal, and gave them to the prosecutor; they have not been opened since.
These are files belonging to my father; I know them by a mark G W, which was our private mark on the paper; each paper contains half a dozen; this mark is on one paper; they were tied up together; sometimes we sell them with the paper; we seldom sell more than one or two together; the paper contains three dozen and a half; we possibly may have sold half a dozen; but I do not recollect, and it possibly might have this mark on it; I was present when they were taken from the prisoner’s right hand coat pocket; he was reluctant: he said they were his own, and he bought them at Hammersmith, and they were made by one Rocking, of Birmingham; these were made by one Rogers of Sheffield; here is his mark, a heart and star; I know by that mark, that they were made by Rogers of Sheffield: there is a maker of brass work at Birmingham, of the name of Rocking, but not of files that I know of; I do know where they came from.
A young man gave them to me, I did steal them.
The prisoner called three witnesses to his character.
Transported for seven years .
Tried by the London Jury before Mr. RECORDER.

Upon arrival Thomas was directly sent by the ‘Salamander’ to Norfolk Island where he may have become acquainted with Ann Dring (nee Forbes, convict ‘Prince of Wales’ 1788), the Dring family left Norfolk Island on 6th November 1794 on the ‘Daedelus’
and returned to Port Jackson, no record of William Dring can be found after 1798, which could mean he either died or more likely left the Colony by boat. Thomas did not to return until 28th May 1796, some eighteen months later on the ‘Marquis Cornwallis’. Thomas and Ann entered into a liason that would last from 1798 until 1851 when Ann died on 29th December at Wilberforce, the couple had 9 children between 1798-1818, all registered under the name Huxley.

Thomas Jones was granted 30 acres at Bardonarrang in January 1798. Still as Thomas Jones, he was granted a further 70 acres near the Colo junction in 4 Jun 1804.
By 1820 Thomas had been granted 100 acres, but was in actual occupation of only 35, the remainder probably in the hands of his sons.
At an advanced age in the 1820’s Thomas and Ann set out with their younger children to tame a fresh 100 acres at Port Macquarie. They returned eventually and Thomas spent the end of a long life at Richmond. His was a river oriented family, one branch has clocked up a century of blacksmithing at Pitt Town and another is in its third generation of building boats at Penrith the obituary of one of his sons, James, published in the Windor and Richmond Gazette on 18 Aug 1894, reference is made to the origin of the naming of Tom Ugly’s Point. It stated that the strip of land belonged to Thomas Huxley and that local aborigines pronounced ‘Huxley’ as ‘Ugly’. To this day the name as pronounced by them has adhered to the place.
Huxley and other farmers were loyal to Governor Bligh.

Julia Perry on 19th April, 2020 wrote:

In the 1814 muster, Thomas Huxley/Jones was the only one from the Salamander convicted in June 1788: At his trial at the Old Bailey in June 1788, when he was about nineteen years old, he was called Thomas Jones.  He was charged with stealing a handkerchief from the pocket of James Neale in St George’s lane, Billingsgate. Neale claimed he felt something at his pocket, turned and saw Jones drop the handkerchief. A passerby caught Jones and Neale took him before a constable.

Julia Perry on 25th April, 2020 wrote:

He came on the Salamander in the third fleet.
In the muster it has month and year of trial, establishing him as the Thomas Jones who stole the handkerchief, not the pig or the files.

Julia Perry on 25th April, 2020 wrote:

According to various sources, Tom Ugly aka Thomas Huxley, who called himself Thomas Jones on land grants, had land at Dover Point, Tom Ugly’s Point, which he sold to James Bull in 1810 in exchange for Bull’s Land adjoining Paradise Point.
He arrived on the Salamander.
In the Musters he said he was convicted at the Old Bailey in June 1788, which makes him the handkerchief thief.

Julia Perry on 14th May, 2020 wrote:

According to Norfolk Island records, Thomas Jones/Huxley did not go to Norfolk Island. The Salamander took convicts to Norfolk Island, but they were not the same convicts as those who arrived from England in the Salamander.
It is also doubtful that he was the Thomas Jones granted land at Bardenarang Creek. He bought five acres of land around that time and lived there with his family until granted Paradise Point at Portland Head.

Julia Perry on 18th June, 2020 wrote:

Thomas Huxley was arrested, convicted (June 1788) and transported on the Salamander as Thomas Jones. His land grants in New South Wales were in the name of Thomas Jones. He was not Thomas Uckles the pig stealer who returned to England. Nor was he the Thomas Jones granted land at Bardenarang Creek.

Convict Changes History

Leigh Ryan on 3rd June, 2014 made the following changes:

convicted at, term: 7 years, voyage, source: http://www.geni.com/people/Thomas-Huxley/6000000007247335443 (prev. ), firstname: Thomas, surname: Huxley, alias1: Thomas Jones, alias2: Thomas Huckles, alias3: , alias4: , date of birth: 31st July, 1768, date

Denis Pember on 27th May, 2015 made the following changes:

voyage, crime

Julia Perry on 25th April, 2020 made the following changes:


This record was discovered and printed on ConvictRecords.com.au