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Daniel Judd, one of 272 convicts transported on the Perseus and Coromandel, January 1802
Name, Aliases & Gender
Birth, Occupation & Death
|Date of Birth:
||24th June, 1780
|Date of Death:
||17th August, 1833
life span was 61 years*
* Median life span based on contributions
Conviction & Transportation
Sentenced to 7 years
||Australian Joint Copying Project. Microfilm Roll 87, Class and Piece Number HO11/1, Page Number 307 (153)
||This record is one of the entries in the British convict transportation registers 1787-1867 database compiled by State Library of Queensland from British Home Office (HO) records which are available on microfilm as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project.
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Elaine Jones on 13th September, 2013 wrote:
The original spelling was Judd but due to his illiteracy and that of a lot of the clerks upon his arrival in Australia Judd became Jurd.
Daniel Jurd was born on 24 June1780 in London to Richard and Elizabeth. He was baptised at St Giles Cripplegate on the 23 July 1780. The baptism records his father as being a chimney sweep. He was one of a family of at least four, his siblings being Elizabeth born 8 January 1769, John Nichols born 8 February 1782 and Sarah born 21 February 1790. As this issue is widely spaced, it is probably incomplete.
Nothing is known of Daniel’s early life. In the government records from his later transportation his description was given as height 4’11½”, fair complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes, and his occupation was given as chimney sweep. Probably, as he was small of stature he was suitable for this type of work and in all probability he had been employed as such from a very early age, probably working with his father.
Daniel Judd, together with Samuel French, was committed on 3 January, 1798 at New Prison by Bleamire. The crime was stealing two pieces of bacon, valued at seven shillings, from the shop of John Chandler. They were tried on 17 January 1798 by Lawrence and Daniel was sentenced to transportation, 7 years. He was delivered to Portsmouth on 10 Feburary, 1799. Samuel French received the same sentence and was delivered to Langstone 16 May, 1798.
The following is an extract from the court report from the Criminal Register - January Sessions 1798 - Middlesex - Case 132:
“DANIEL JUDD and SAMUEL FRENCH were indicted for feloniously stealing, on the 30th of December, 20lbs. of bacon, value 7s. the property of John Chandler. THOMAS TYRRELL sworn. - I live at No. 10 Lower Street, Illington, with Mr. Stifford, an apothecary, very near Mr. Chandler’s: On Saturday, the 30th of December, I saw the prisoners between seven and eight at night, lurking about in Crofs Street, Illington, peeping in at every window, and looking down several areas, I suspected them, and watched them, I saw them go into a chandler’s shop, in Upper Street, I watched them from there to Mr. Chandler’s which is a few doors farther in the same street, there was a woman in the shop, and they kept walking backwards and forwards, till the woman came out, then Judd went up to the door, Mrs. Chandler was in the shop, and he came away again, he went up several times, and came away, at last Mrs. Chandler went into the backroom, Judd went up to the door, and went into the shop, the other stood on the steps; Judd then brought something out and gave to French, who went across the road with it; I followed him, and caught him near the top of Crofs Street; I brought him back with the bacon.
Q. Did you watch them so near as to be certain to the person of Judd?
ROBERT HUDSON sworn. - I have a stable in Crofs Street, Illington: I saw there two boys standing by Mr. Chandler’s window, I suspected them, I went into the Church yard and watched them; I had not stood there above five or six minutes before I saw Judd go up the steps, once or twice, and return again; at last he opened the door and went in, he brought something out and gave to the other boy, he held his apron up, and ran away with it, across the road; I was going to run after him, when the last witness popped out of a court between him and me, he went after French, and Judd seeing that, went to turn about to run away, and came directly into my arms, (produces the bacon); I have had it ever since.
JOHN CHANDLER sworn. - I am a cheesemonger, the corner of Mitre court, Upper Street, Illington: I was not at home when the bacon was stole; I had such bacon as this, but it is a hard thing to swear to.
Judd’s defence. I was coming home from coal work, I know nothing at all of it.
French’s defence. I picked the bacon up in the road, and this gentleman came and laid hold of me.
Judd, GUILTY (Aged 16)
French, GUILTY (Aged 17)
Transported for seven years.
Tried by the First Middlesex Jury, before Mr F Aice LAWRENCE.”
After being convicted he was delivered at Portsmouth on 10 February 1799. The time which elapsed between conviction and delivery was spent living on a “hulk”, and working locally.
Of the five convict ships to reach Port Jackson in 1802, the “Coromandel” and the “Perseus”, both owned by Reeve and Green, sailed from Spithead, England, on 12 February, 1802.
The older and smaller “Perseus” (she was 364 tons) had been built at Stockton in 1789, was incapable of making a direct passage and was 173 days out when she reached Port Jackson, having touched at both Rio and the Cap en route. The “Perseus” was captained by John Davison, and her surgeon was W.S. Fielding. She embarked with 113 prisoners, relanded one, and having no fatalities during the voyage, reached Port Jackson with 112 male convicts. (Source: “The Convict Ships 1787 - 1868”, Charles Bateson.)
Other transports were not so lucky! The “Hillsborough” of 1799, later to be known as the “fever ship”, lost 95 of her 300 prisoners due to typhoid fever, carried aboard from the hulks at Portsmouth.
Some firms whose vessels carried slaves to America, and soldiers to Europe, competed to carry convicts to New South Wales and in time, to convey free immigrants. It took the transports 821 voyages to bring the convicts from Britain to Australia. As ships got faster and larger the average length of the trip dropped from 258 days in 1787-88 to 89 days in 1867-68, and the average number of convicts each ship carried rose from 126 to 280. Beneath the hatches, and grating, crammed in poorly ventilated holds which reeked of excrement and bilge-water, the felons suffered many privations.
When Daniel arrived in Port Jackson, on 4 August 1802 the colony had been established only 14 years. Times had indeed been very hard, with the infant colony several times on the brink of starvation. Ships continued to arrive in succession bringing convicts and from 1793 onwards some free settlers began to arrive.
The populace had settled around the cove, and at Parramatta. Farms had been started, and crops grown. As the majority of the convicts were city dwellers, their knowledge of farming was limited, and progress had been slow, coupled with the ravages of droughts and floods.
From 1802 until his marriage at St. Matthews Windsor in 1812, little is known of Daniel’s life, although it is probable that he was “assigned” to farm work. His sentence expired in 1805 and after that time he took up the occupation of a tenant farmer. In 1806 the census notes “Daniel Jurde” of the Perseus as renting 7 acres from J Bootle. (John Bootle, besides being a landlord of several properties, farmed land near the Hawkesbury. He arrived in the colony in 1790 aboard the Neptune, after having been sentenced at Somerset in1787 to 14 years transportation. The 1806 Muster has him as married with no children. By 1822 he had five children. He died at Pitt Town in 1830.)
He married on 28 September 1812 Elizabeth Douglass, she being then 16 years of age, and Daniel, 32. Witnesses were John and Isabelle Suddis, Matthew Hughes (schoolteacher). Daniel being illiterate signed with his mark thus - “X”.
“Daniel Jurd, of this Parish and Elizabeth Douglass, of this Parish were married by banns this twenty eighth day of September in the year One thousand eight hundred and twelve by me Robt Cartwright. This marriage was solemized between us Daniel Jurd X his mark Elizabeth Douglass X her mark In the presence of John Luddifs (sic) Isabella Juddifs (sic) Mathew Hughes.”
During the next nineteen years, whilst farming at Pitt Town, on the Hawkesbury River, Daniel and Elizabeth became parents of 9 children, 6 sons and 3 daughters, thus establishing the permanency of the Jurd name. As was common in those days, the children’s names were predictable, and bore significance to earlier family members:
John - Daniel’s brother
James - Elizabeth’s younger brother
Richard - Daniel’s father
Mary Ann - Elizabeth’s mother
Daniel - himself
Elizabeth - herself
Sarah - Daniel’s sister
William - Elizabeth’s father
Joseph - Elizabeth’s twin brother
Life was not easy, and the early settlers were faced with the herculean task of fashioning a home with primitive tools in virgin bush, untrodden by white man.
The 1822 General Muster records Daniel as living at Windsor with his wife Elizabeth and five children. However two of the children are recorded as belonging to another family. As Elizabeth’s mother, Mary had died in 1810, it is possible that the two children were Elizabeth’s younger siblings. The three other children would of course have been John, James and Richard.
The Land and Stock Muster records Daniel as farming 20 acres which was partially leased and granted. He is recorded as farming 8 acres of wheat, 6 acres of maize, 2 acres of oats and half an acre potatoes. All twenty acres are recorded as having been cleared. He also owned two horses, one cow and fourteen pigs. At that time there were also two convicts working on Daniel’s farm: James, Burgoyne and Joseph Bush, both serving life sentences. They arrived aboard the Agamemnon on 22 September 1820.
In looking through the “Sydney Gazette”, we find that on the 11 November 1826, the following advertisement appeared:
“Strayed or stolen from the Pitt Town Run, a light bay colt, raising four years old with a white spot on one of his hind legs, on the fetlock joint. Any person restoring the same to the undersigned, if strayed six dollars reward, and if stolen, and the offender or offenders prosecuted, a reward of forty dollars will be given.
Daniel Jurd. Pitt Town.”
On 17 August 1833 Daniel died, leaving Elizabeth with 9 children whose ages ranged from 19 to the baby Joseph aged seven months. Daniel’s cause of death is not known, as no death certificate can be obtained, registration was not compulsory till 1856. He was layed to rest in the Church of England semetery of St James, Pitt Town, where his head stone can still be seen, and is readily decipherable.
[Source: Notes by Jeanette Bell]
Daniel had been ‘promised’ land in the Upper Macdonald, but did not enter upon it himself. When he died in Pitt Town he left the farm to his wife Elizabeth in a life tenancy, the Macdonald land being farmed by her elder son John. When John moved into the Valley his mother Elizabeth Jurd came also, bringing also her aged and widowed father William Douglas, who had been living with them at Pitt Town.
[Source: Pg 97 “The Forgotten Valley” by M. Hutton Neve]
Convict Changes History
Elaine Jones on 13th September, 2013 made the following changes:
alias1, gender, crime
D Wong on 13th March, 2016 made the following changes:
date of birth: 24th June, 1780 (prev. 0000), date of death: 17th August, 1833 (prev. 0000), occupation