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Thomas White

Thomas White, one of 190 convicts transported on the Guildford, 22 March 1827

Name, Aliases & Gender

Name: Thomas White
Aliases: none
Gender: m

Birth, Occupation & Death

Date of Birth: 1802
Occupation: Carter
Date of Death: -
Age: -

Life Span

Life span

Male median life span was 51 years*

* Median life span based on contributions

Conviction & Transportation

Sentence Severity

Sentence Severity

Sentenced to Life

Crime: Robbery
Convicted at: Glasgow Court of Justiciary
Sentence term: Life
Ship: Guildford
Departure date: 22nd March, 1827
Arrival date: 25th July, 1827
Place of arrival New South Wales
Passenger manifest Travelled with 192 other convicts


Primary source: Australian Joint Copying Project. Microfilm Roll 88, Class and Piece Number HO11/6, Page Number 120
Source description: This record is one of the entries in the British convict transportation registers 1787-1867 database compiled by State Library of Queensland from British Home Office (HO) records which are available on microfilm as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project.

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Community Contributions

Dianne Jones on 8th July, 2021 wrote:

1826: PRECOGNITION—Precognition against Edward Kelly, Thomas White, James Russell, Duncan MacDonald (as witness) and Maxwell Grindlay for the crime of robbery

Accused: Edward Kelly, Age: 19?, carter, Address: Bridgegate, Glasgow.

Accused: Thomas White, Age: 24, carter, Address: New Wynd, Glasgow.

Accused: James Russell

Accused: Maxwell Grindlay, carter

Witness: Duncan MacDonald, Age: 26, carter, Address: Bridgegate, Glasgow

Victim: James Fleming (see National Records of Scotland, Reference AD14/26/357).


1826, 29 September: TRIAL—Only two of the original four men accused were tried, in the High Court, at Glasgow:

They were: Edward Kelly, carter, and Thomas White, carter, and they were charged with “the crime of Assault and Robbery”.

Both were found guilty and sentenced “to be hanged at Glasgow on 1 November 1826” (see National Records of Scotland; Reference JC26/1826/252).


Dianne Jones on 8th July, 2021 wrote:


1826, 12 October: A PETITION FOR CLEMENCY—“HO 17/10/7…Prisoner name: Edward Kelly and Thomas White.

Prisoner details: Kelly aged 19, a carter from Glasgow. White aged 24, a carter from Glasgow.

Court and date of trial: Glasgow Circuit Court 25 September 1826.

Crime: Robbery - attacking James Fleming Senior and stealing £108 16s on 31 March 1826.

Initial sentence: Death, day of execution 1 November 1826.

Annotated: Conditional pardon for White; let the law take its course with respect to Edward Kelly; let James White be transported for life - inform the Justice Clerk.

Petitioner(s): Edward Kelly; Thomas White.

Grounds for clemency for Kelly: Father a soldier brought up his family with honesty and industry; parents now aged; apart from youthful indiscretions this was his first offence; includes character certificates; no violence involved.

Grounds for clemency for White: The jury recommended him to mercy; he confessed his guilt; no violence was involved; most of the money has been restored; his previous good character; has good character references; first offence; he feels deep contrition for the crime.

Other papers: D Boyle recommends transportation for White. Declaration of James Fleming that he was not injured by the robbers and recommends them to mercy. Declarations of Kelly and White. Printed indictment. D Boyle enclosing certificates. 10 certificates of White’s good character. 11 copy certificates of White’s good character. [Andrew Simson] stating White not known to police. Six character certificates for Kelly and a note accompanying them. Copy notes of evidence taken in trial of Edward Kelly and Thomas White by Lord Pitmilly.

Additional Information: Charged with Maxwell Grindlay [Alexander Grindlay] who did not appear in court; they were arrested with Duncan Macdonald (see https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C11667972).


Dianne Jones on 8th July, 2021 wrote:


1826, 1 November: Edward Kelly was one of two men hanged on this day, in Glasgow. Below is an extract from one of the broadsides in the National Library of Scotland’s collection that describe the executions.

The NLS says “the author of this broadside tried to make it appeal to the public” by using a “highly excitable tone” and describing the men’s offence as “the ‘daring crime’ of street robbery”. Reports of “dark and salacious deeds were popular with the public, and, like today’s sensationalist tabloids, sold in large numbers. Crimes could generate sequences of sheets covering descriptive accounts, court proceedings, last words, lamentations and executions as they occurred. As competition was fierce, immediacy was paramount, and these occasions provided an opportunity for printers and patterers to maximise sales” (see https://digital.nls.uk/broadsides/view/?id=16582&transcript=1).


An account of the Behaviour and Execution of ANDREW STEWART and EDWARD KELLY, who were both Executed at Glasgow on Wednesday Morning, in the presence of an immense multitude, for the daring crime of Street Robbery…

GLASGOW, NOVEMBER 1, 1826. This day the highest punishment of the law was put in force upon ANDREW STEWART and EDWARD KELLY, convicted at our last Circuit Court of Street Robbery.         

...Kelly was convicted along with Thomas White (but who has since been respited) of robbing James Fleming of upwards of L. 100 sterling, in the Bridgegate, on the 31st March last. The circumstances of this case are nearly similar to the last, and should be a warning to people who have money on them, to be aware of the company they go into, for it appears
that Mr. Fleming had imprudently allowed himself to be decoyed into a house with a woman whom he had picked up in the street and while in his company she had no doubt discovered that he had money in his possession, and after parting, had given information to some of her abandoned associates, for he was soon after waylaid by several fellows, dragged into a close and robbed of his money, and considerably hurt. The robbers having gone into a Mr. Moffat’s, spirit-dealer, Tradeston, to divide their booty, he, by his prudent conduct had them apprehended before they could get their purpose accomplished, and L.61 of the money recovered, another of the party having made his escape with the remainder.

Kelly was about 21 years of age, and was also a native of the sister island, of the Roman Catholic persuasion. He had never been bred to any regular business, and in consequence of his idle life, he had more than once been the inmate of a prison. He was attended by the Rev. Mr. Scott and the Rev. Mr. Murdoch to whose spiritual admonitions he paid the
most implicit obedience.

Soon after 8 o’clock the culprits ascended the fatal platform, attended by the Ministers of their respective religion, and after a short time spent in prayer, the executioner proceeded to adjust the ropes which having been finished, the drop soon after fell, where they died almost instantly. Considering the early hour the Crowd was very considerable…                   

John Muir, printer, Glasgow.”

Dianne Jones on 8th July, 2021 wrote:


1826, 8 December: Thomas White’s wife, Mary Neilson, sought permission to accompany her husband with their newborn child. Below is the record of that petition:

“HO 17/11/7… 1 collective petition (4 people, Mary Nielson [sic] the prisoner’s wife, a previous employer, and elders of St James’ church) on behalf of Mary Neilson, who petitions to accompany her husband with her newborn child. Mary Neilson is the wife of Thomas White, carter who was sentenced by the Circuit Court held at Glasgow in 1826, (crime not given). There is a copy of the marriage certificate for Thomas White and Mary Neilson dated 28 December 1824. Initial sentence: death, commuted to transportation for life. Grounds for clemency: to avoid becoming an object of public charity and of previous blameless character. Annotation: ‘Inform her that it is contrary to the expectation for her to accompany her husband’ and ‘usual answer 15 Dec 1826’. AM 7. [Scot].

Dianne Jones on 8th July, 2021 wrote:

1827, 2 February: Thomas White, prisoner #1650, was received aboard the Justitia prison hulk at Woolwich. He was 25, convicted for “robbery” and sentenced to life. He was sent from there for transportation on 12 March 1827 (see UK, Prison Hulk Registers and Letter Books, 1802-1849).

1842, 23 May: Thomas White per Guildford was on a list of convicts recommended for a Conditional Pardon (see New South Wales, Australia, Convict Registers of Conditional and Absolute Pardons, 1788-1870).

1843, 20 January: His CP was approved (see New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia, Convict Pardons and Tickets of Leave, 1834-1859).

1850, 29 January: Thomas White’s Conditional Pardon was extended.

From the New South Wales Government Gazette, [Issue No.13], p.157:

“Colonial Secretary’s Office, Sydney, 28th January, 1850.
HIS Excellency the Governor directs it to be notified, that in accordance with the Regulation dated 2nd December, 1846, the Conditional Pardons granted to the undermentioned persons have been so far enlarged, as to enable the holders to proceed to any part of the world, except the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, viz.:—
George Roberts, per Albion 1.
Thomas White, per Guildford 7.
By His Excellency’s Command,

Convict Changes History

Dianne Jones on 8th July, 2021 made the following changes:

gender: m, occupation, crime

Dianne Jones on 8th July, 2021 made the following changes:

date of birth: 1802 (prev. 0000)

This record was discovered and printed on ConvictRecords.com.au