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Thomas Hedges

Thomas Hedges, one of 180 convicts transported on the Almorah, April 1817

Name, Aliases & Gender

Name: Thomas Hedges
Aliases: none
Gender: m

Birth, Occupation & Death

Date of Birth: -
Occupation: Whitesmith
Date of Death: 28th July, 1880
Age: -

Life Span

Life span

Male median life span was 61 years*

* Median life span based on contributions

Conviction & Transportation

Sentence Severity

Sentence Severity

Sentenced to Life

Crime: Highway robbery
Convicted at: Middlesex Gaol Delivery
Sentence term: Life
Ship: Almorah
Departure date: April, 1817
Arrival date: 29th August, 1817
Place of arrival New South Wales
Passenger manifest Travelled with 178 other convicts

References

Primary source: Australian Joint Copying Project. Microfilm Roll 88, Class and Piece Number HO11/2, Page Number 342
Source description: This record is one of the entries in the British convict transportation registers 1787-1867 database compiled by State Library of Queensland from British Home Office (HO) records which are available on microfilm as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project.

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Community Contributions

Robert on 18th August, 2012 wrote:

Born between 1796-97;  Thomas Hedges; dob, 1792, England. (calculated from death notice).
dob, 1796 (calculated from trial transcript.)
dob, 1797 London (calculated from Convict Register)

20 Sep 1809 Old Bailey Witness:
JAMES HAUGHTON, Theft > grand larceny, 20th September 1809.
807. JAMES HAUGHTON was indicted for feloniously stealing on the 15th of September , twenty five pound weight of iron, value 5 s. the property of Jeremiah Sinderby .
JEREMIAH SINDERBY . I am a smith , I live in Brook’s market. The prisoner was a servant of mine.
Q. What reason have you to charge the prisoner with stealing twenty five pound of iron - A. I lost a deal of property.
Q. In consequence of information that you had from your boy did you go to this place and see these pieces of iron where they ought not to be - A. I did. On last Friday week the prisoner and his partner were out in Holborn fixing some bars; he and his partner were came home in the evening, I was sitting up stairs in my room, my boy informed me that he had taken away the iron under his coat; I pursued him as far as Saffron hill, I could not catch him.
Q. Did you find your iron - A. No. I went to Hatton Garden office and got an officer; when the officer arrived at his lodgings the prisoner had just got home; I charged him with stealing a bar of iron, he denied it; I told the officer to take him in custody. I have never found the bar again. When I looked under the stairs at my own house the large bar was gone and the small one left.
THOMAS HEDGES . Q Did you find any bars of iron out of their proper place - A. Yes; that was on Friday; they had been removed to under the stairs; I told my master. On the same evening one of them was taken away, I saw James Haughton take it, and I saw his hand under his coat with it; I happened to go into the shop at the same time he was going out of the door, I went directly to the stairs and saw the largest piece was gone, and the smallest piece was left. I told my master immediately of it, and he and I pursued the prisoner; he got out of sight. At Hatton Garden office I told him I saw him take it, he denied it.
Prisoner’s Defence. I know nothing of the iron; my place was searched by the officer and nothing found.
Q. to Hedges. When had you last seen the bars of iron - A. About five minutes before he came home I had seen both; I looked after he was gone, the large one was gone.
GUILTY , aged 29.
Publickly Whipped , and Confined Six Months in the House of Correction .
First Middlesex jury, before Mr. Common Serjeant.
Occupation; Whitesmith.               
A whitesmith is a person who works with "white" or light-coloured metals such as tin and pewter. While blacksmiths work mostly with hot metal, whitesmiths do the majority of their work on cold metal (although they might use a forge to shape their raw materials).
The term is also applied to metalworkers who do only finishing work – such as filing or polishing – on iron and other "black" metals.
A whitesmith was a common occupation to have in colonial times, as well as a blacksmith or a hatter.
Whitesmiths make things such as tin or pewter cups, water pitchers, forks, spoons, and candle holders.
The "smith" part of the term "whitesmith" is probably of pre-7th century Anglo-Saxon origins, and derives from the word ‘smitan’ meaning ‘to smite’ and as such is believed to have described not a worker in iron, but a soldier, one who smote. That he also probably wore armour, which he would have been required to repair, may have also helped lead to the secondary meaning used in "whitesmith".

Note: 18th September1816 refers to the commencement date of the Seventh Session of the Old Bailey 1816. The Session Commencement date is used as a Standard in Page Titles and Documents.
The date 18/09/1816 is not the date of the trial, (they processed 278 trials in the Seventh Session, the Eight Session of the Old Bailey commenced on the 30th October 1816).
Thomas’ trial was held on the Monday, 30 September1816, and sentenced on the Tuesday, 8th October, source Champion Newspaper Middlesex, London Sunday October, 6 & 13, 1816, and the Anti Gallican Monitor, London, Sunday, October, 13, 1816).

24 Sep 1816 Commits Criminal Offence and is Apprehended;
Thomas Hedges on Tuesday 24th September attacked Jonathan (William) Hardcastle and stole one watch, value 2l. one ring, value 14s. one seal, value 7s. two watch-keys, value 2d. and one chain, value 1s. his property. As he was trying to flee the seen Thomas slipped and fell and was then apprehended by Richard Brewer and Emanuel Oakley.


OLD BAILEY, Seventh Session, 18 September 1816, Conviction, Highway Robbery,
Ref No. t18160918-22 :
THOMAS HEDGES, Violent Theft > robbery, 18th September 1816. GUILTY - DEATH Commuted to transportation for term of Life.

840. THOMAS HEDGES was indicted for feloniously assaulting Jonathan Hardcastle , on the 24th of September, for putting him, in fear and taking from his person, and against his will, one watch, value 2l. one ring, value 14s. one seal, value 7s. two watch-keys, value 2d. and one chain, value 1s. his property .
WILLIAM HARDCASTLE . I was going up the King’s-road , on the Tuesday, the 24th of September, towards Theobald’s-row. When I was going to step across John street, the prisoner Hedges drove against me with his shoulder, and drove me back, and immediately snatched my watch, and took it out, and I felt it. I felt it moving out of my pocket. I immediately when it was gone, I turned myself round, an the turned towards Gray’s inn-lane, and I called out stop thief; it was about four or five minutes between my being robbed and his being taking.
RICHARD BREWER . I was going down the King’s road, and heard the cry of stop thief, and saw the prisoner running, and stopped him; when he saw me coming towards him, he slipped down, and when he got up he put his hands between his legs, and another man came up, and took something out of his hand; which I presume was the watch, and the other man went off.
EMANUEL OAKLEY . I heard the cry of stop thief, and saw two men in the kennel; one was the prisoner, and the other was the last evidence, and I helped to secure the prisoner.
GUILTY - DEATH , aged 20.
First Middlesex Jury, before Mr. Recorder.

Middlesex, Gaol, Delivery Report;
Thomas Hedges / Middlesex Gaol Delivery /18 September 1816 / Life.
NOTE: 18 September 1816 refers to the commencement date of the 7th Session, 1816 of the Old Bailey not the trial date it which was held on the 30 Sep 1816;

30 Sep 1816 Conviction;
Thomas Hedges, convicted for Highway Robbery on Jonathan Hardcastle 24 Sep 1816.

Sunday October, 6 1816, The Champion, Middlesex, London
OLD BAILEY:
Monday, Sept 30. Thomas Hedges for an assault on Jonathan Hardcastle, and taking from his person a watch, his property . — Guilty.

8 Oct 1816 Sentened to Death;
Thomas Hedges received the Death Sentence later commuted to Transportation for Life.

Champion, Sunday, October, 13, 1816, London, Middlesex;
Tuesday, Oct. 8.- The Recorder proceeded to pass sentence of death upon; Thomas Hedges.

Sunday, October, 13, 1816, The Anti Gallican Monitor, London
OLD BAILEY - Tuesday; For Death:- Thomas Hedges, for Highway Robbery.

Old Bailey Document Record;
Thomas Hedges, 25th November 1816.
Trials: t18160918-22
Name, Date of Document and Offence: Thomas Hedges, 25/11/1816.
Document Type and Location: recorder’s report, The National Archives, HO 6/1.

15 Apr 1817 Middlesex Gaol Report;
Thomas Hedges, Aged 20, Capital Respite, Middlesex 18 Sep 1816, Life, Transfer 15 Apr 1817.

26 Apr 1817 Transportation:
Thomas Hedges, Sailed from Downs, aboard the “Almorah” which was carrying 180 convicts for Port Jackson via Reo Master William McKissock, Ships Surgeon Edward F Bromley.

29 Aug 1817 Arrived: 
The “Almorah” arrived at Port Jackson on 29 August 1817 after a voyage of 125 Days.

ALMORAH & PILOT 1817.
Arrived at Port Jackson in the unusually short time of four months and one day from the Nore. Not a single instance of mortality had occurred on board and all the convicts were landed in health and spirits; such had been the excellent regulations of the master and surgeon, that the necessity of inflicting punishment had not arisen.
Almorah (1) departed 26 April 1817 from Downs, arrived NSW 29 August 1817 after a voyage of 125 days with 180 male convicts who all disembarked at Sydney.

The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 30 August 1817.
Being necessarily compelled to detain the publication of this Paper, we have further to announce the arrival on Sunday morning, the 29th instant, of the ship Almorah, with 180 male prisoners, all in excellent health, consequent upon their good treatment upon the passage; she lost not a man. - This vessel sailed from the Downs the 28th of April, arrived at Rio de Janeiro the 15th of June, and sailed on the 23rd.

The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 6 September 1817.
“We are authorised in stating, that a respectful Address has been transmitted to His EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR, from the Convicts lately arrived per the Almorah Transport, expressive of their grateful acknowledment to Dr. BROMLEY, the Surgeon   Superintendant, for his humane attention to, and kind consideration of all their wants during their passage, which was happily effected without the loss of a single man. The address is signed on behalf of all the prisoners by those of them who could write, amounting to thirty persons.”

Letter to E. F. Bromley, ship’s Surgeon,
Report of Select Committee on State of Gaols.
Honoured Sir,
With feelings of the most respectful nature, we beg you to accept our most
heartfelt acknowledgements for the many comforts and indulgences we have
received from you during the passage from England, and for which we are indebted
to your kindness and humanity.
Were it possible, honoured Sir, for us to show you in a more striking manner the
high sense we entertain for the many kindnesses we have received, we should
consider ourselves completely happy; but as that, perhaps, may never occur, we
now, with sentiments of the highest esteem for your kindness, return you our
most grateful and sincere thanks, and remain,
Honoured Sir
Your most obedient and humble servants
The Convicts.
Select Documents in Australian History 1788 - 1850 C.M.H. Clark.

The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 13 September 1817.
During the late week we have received a request from the prisoners brought out by the Almorah, to add to their duty of thanks to Dr. Bromley, those also to Capt. [Mc]Kissock, for his humane treatment throughout the voyage, and his officers also. In complying   with the wish we feel the more gratified, as we can state as a positive fact, that no single instance of   punishment occurred on board the Almorah; no discontent prevailed on board the Almorah; no suspicion of mutiny was ever apprehended on board the   Almorah; and no wonder then that the hearts of the prisoners should be alive to a becoming sense of gratitude for the humane and liberal usage they received on board of the Almorah! 
To-morrow will sail the ship PILOT, Capt. PEXTON, for Hobart Town, whither she conveys the major part of the prisoners recently arrived per the Almorah; joined by a number of others, sent from the Colony, comprising in the whole 280 persons. The military guard on board is detached from the 48th Regt, and proceeds under orders of Lieut. H. E. ROBINSON.

14 Sep 1817 Departed;
The ship “Pilot” departed Port Jackson for Hobart carrying 280 male convicts for Hobart Town, Van Dieman’s Land.

The Hobart Town Gazette and Southern Reporter, 27 September 1817.
SHIP NEWS. - Owing to a signal which was flying all yesterday at Mount Nelson for a ship in sight from the Northward, we stopped the Press. We are now enabled to acquaint our Readers that the ship Pilot, Capt. PEXTON, of 400 tons burthen, lately from England, with male Convicts, has arrived in this Harbour from Port Jackson, which place she left on the 14th instant; bringing Lieut. ROBINSON and 18 privates of the 48th Regt, with 280 male prisoners;105 of whom had lately been landed from the Almorah.
Though we hear of very few English letters, expected by the Dick, having yet reached this Settlement, we learn by the Pilot that the Dick, the Lloyds, and the Almorah, the former with troops, and the latter with stores and prisoners, had arrived since our last advices from Sydney; and that the Lord Eldon, Wallis, with male, and the Elizabeth, with female prisoners, were hourly expected.
Passengers by the Pilot, Mr. G. W. EVANS, Land Surveyor; Mrs. PEXTON; Miss JULIA BREANAN ; Mr. QUEADE, Surgeon R. N.; and two Sons of Mr. CUMMINGS’ of Port Dalrymple,     
The Pilot came here under the expectation of procuring a cargo of wheat.

28 Sep 1817 Arrival Hobart:
Thomas Hedges, arrived Hobart aboard the “Pilot”

Convict Conduct Record;
# 4, Hedges Thomas, Almorah & Pilot, 1817, London, Sept 1816 - Life. (No Gaol or Hulk Reports).

1817 Convict Description Register;

Convict Description Register pge 1.
No.
Name
Tried
Sentence
Age
Native Place

Where
When

14
Thomas Hedges
London
18th Sep 1816
Life
20
London

Convict Description Register pge 2.
Trade or calling
Height
Colour of
Complexion
General Remarks

Feet
Inches
Eyes
Hair

Whitesmith
5 7 1/2”
Hazel
Drk brown
Ruddy
Bad Character

11 Feb 1819 Convict Conduct Record, Offence:
Thomas Hedges; Feb 11 1819, Neglect of duty - to work for Government one week in his own time (AWHH).
1819Convict Muster:
Thomas Hedges; Public Works. McKissnick

20 Dec 1819 Convict Conduct Record, Offence:
Thomas Hedges; Dec 20 1819, Disorderly at church one week for the Government in his own time. (Rev RKJ AWHH) 

16 Jun 1819 Convict Conduct Record, Offence:
Thomas Hedges; June 16 1819, Disobeying of orders 25 Lashes (G Crimtice?)

10 Aug 1820 Convict Conduct Record;
Thomas Hedges; Ticket of Leave, 10 August 1820. 

21 Aug 1820 Convict Conduct Record Offence:
Thomas Hedges; Aug 21 1820, Ill-treats female prisoner 25 Lashes & to work in Irons 4 Months (Commandant)

31 Oct 1820 Married:
Thomas Hedges married Ann Harwood a Convict ?010 Employed at Hobart Town

Note: In Tasmanian Family Links marriage recorded as between Thomas Edgers & Ann Harwood, 1820 Hobart.

1821 Convict Muster:
Thomas Hedges; Ticket of Leave, 31 October 1820. Married Ann Harwood a Convict ?010 Employed at Hobart Town.

1821-1824 Birth;
John Hedges, s.o Thomas Hedges & Ann Harwood. (calculated from John Hedges marriage cert, or 1824 if you use the age on his death cert).

1822Convict Muster:
Thomas Hedges; Ticket of Leave
 
1823 Convict Muster:
Thomas Hedges; Married, Ticket of Leave.
Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser Tas. Saturday 2 August 1823
ALL Persons are hereby cautioned against giving credit to my wife, Elizabeth Hedges, on my account, as I will not be responsible for any debts contracted by her, she having eloped from her home.
Thomas Hedges.

22Oct 1823 Ann Harwood, Conduct Record, Offence;
Ann Harwood. Oct 22 1823. T. L. / Living in Adultery with James Luckman - C. Clap Factory. (Rev R K)

1826 Convict Muster:
Thomas Hedges; Ticket of Leave.

30 April 1828 Convict Conduct Record, Offence:
Thomas Hedges; T.L./ N T Road Pahole / neglect of duty & found in the Dallay Arms Public House Saturday night last at ¼ past 9 o’clock admon??? (TQL).

12 May 1828 Ann Harwood, Conduct Record, Offence;
Ann Harwood, May 12 1828 Assigned to Thomas Hedges / drunk and disorderly & being found out after hours - to be confined in a cell & fed on bread and water 7 days (P S)

10 April 1829 Ann Harwood, Conduct Record, Offence;
Ann Harwood. April 10 1829 Assigned to Hedges / Rioting Conduct last night at the Spotted Cow Public House - absconded ( J Spode).

24 April 1830 Convict Conduct Record, Offence:
Thomas Hedges; April 24 1830 T.L./ Riding in his own cart without a driver on foot or reins to guide the beast - fined 20/ and costs (J Spode)

13 Sep 1831 Ann Harwood, Conduct Record, Offence;
Ann Harwood. T.L. Assigned Hedges / Charged by her husband with being Disobedient, Case Dismissed (COM).

24 Feb 1832 Conditional Pardon
Thomas Hedges; Conditional Pardon No. 321 24th February 1832.

7 Dec 1833 Ann Harwood Conduct Record, Offence;
Ann Harwood, Dec 7 1833 T.L. Assigned Hedges Found in bed with Constable Peacock, T.L. suspended Six Months & returned to the Factory (APM).

30 Jul 1840 Pardon
Thomas Hedges; Free, Pardon No. 599 30th July 1840.

The Hobart Town Courier and Van Diemen’s Land Gazette Tas. Friday 31 July 1840
July 30. 1840.GOVERNMENT NOTICE, No. 190, Colonial Secretary’s Office,
Memoranda of Pardon have been issued for the following Convicts until Her Majesty’s pleasure be known:- Free Pardon - Mark Bunker, Lady Castlereagh; Philip Clarke, Sir Godfrey Webster ; John M’Donagh, Miuerva Thomas Hedges, Almerah & Pilot; Edwurd Haines, Caledonia; William Kelly, Lady Castlereagh ; William Lawton, Dromedary ; John Malt.

20 Nov 1843 Marriage Hobart:
John Hedges (signed X)(age, 22)  (Occupation, Carter, Bachelor) to Frances Elizabeth Head (signed X) (age, 21) (Occupation, Spinster). Witnessed by Isaac Head and Josias Heyward.
John’s actual age between 19 - 22, Frances’ actual age was 17.

South Australian Register Adelaide, SA Saturday 20 March 1852
Note: Unable to copy full text the list includes the name of the person sending the gold, the amount, and who it was addressed to. Article is under the heading:
ARRIVAL IN ADELAIDE OF THE FIRST GOLD ESCORT FROM MOUNT ALEXANDER
fatigable, had the treasure deposited in the strong vault under his own supervision, and then took personal cognizance of about 400 letters, the delivery of which at the Post-Office he also witnessed, and then retired to receive the more quiet but not less cordial greetings and congratulations of his numerous friends. The importance and success of his mission will be appreciated on perusal of the following counterpart list accompanying the treasure : — 
Gold Assignment List from Mount Alexander.
No.
Sent by
lbs
ozs.
Addressed to
35
Thomas Hedges
1

Elizabeth Hedges

The Hobarton Mercury Tas. Monday 30 April 1855
Before the Chief Police Magistiate and Mr. S. Moses.
Assault.- In this case Martin Kelly, of Liverpool-street, charged William Dove, the father, and Samuel Dove, the son, a boy twelve years of age, with assaulting him on the 17th of April. The complainant who lived at Mr Brown’s public house, the Rob Roy, stated that on the evening of of the day above mentioned, the defendant and his wife came into the house; witness was patting a dog in the bar, when Mrs Dove struck him on the face; Mr Dove called for a pot of beer, and having poured out a glass, threw the remainder at witness, pot and all; witness (then rushed out of the house, when Master Dove threw a stone at him, and struck him on the shin, the mark of which still visible; he, witness, did not challenge Dove to fight; Master Dove after he had thrown the stone, said if he witness struck his father he would pelt him again; witness had had a quarrel with the defendant, whose wife was his first cousin; no altercation took place at the time of the assault the defendant and Mr Brown had been calling the complainant names since the assault, and abusing him; Mr Brown had expressed his opinion, to the defendant, that he witness would swear anything.
Thomas Hedges saw the defendant throw some beer and a pot at the complainant; he walked away, and that was all he saw or heard; as they were going into the house they were aggrava

Convict Changes History

Robert on 18th August, 2012 made the following changes:

date of death 1880-07-28, gender m

This record was discovered and printed on ConvictRecords.com.au